С.Эрдэнийн “морь” хол давхисангүй

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Эдийн засгийн байнгын хорооны хуралдаанаар УИХ-ын гишүүн С.Эрдэнийн санаачилсан Зээлийн хүүгийн дээд хязгаар тогтоох болон мөнгө хүүлэлттэй тэмцэх тухай хуулийн төсөл болон хамт өргөн мэдүүлсэн бусад хуулийн төслийн үзэл баримтлалыг хэлэлцэх эсэх асуудлыг хэлэлцлээ.

Хуулийн төслийн үзэл баримтлалыг хууль санаачлагч УИХ-ын гишүүн С.Эрдэнэ танилцуулав. Тэрбээр Монголчууд бага цалинтай ажил хөдөлмөр, өндөр зардалтай бизнес эрхлэж, хаа ч байхгүй хамгийн өндөр санхүүгийн түрээс /зээлийн хүү/ төлж, бултаараа банкны эзэд, мөнгө хүүлэгчдэд хэт их хэмжээний монополь ашиг “үйлдвэрлэн” өгч байна. Санхүүгийн зах дээр нэгэнт тогтсон монополь өндөр зээлийн хүү нь дэлхий дээр хамгийн өндөр хүүтэй хадгаламж татах нөхцлийг бүрдүүлж, тэдгээрийг дагуулж төв банк бодлогын хүүгээ дэлхий дээр бас л байхгүй өндөр түвшинд тогтоон барьж байна. Сүүлийн 11 жилд зээлийн нийлүүлэлт 2 их наяд төгрөгөөс 13.6 их наяд төгрөгт хүрч, бараг 6.8 дахин нэмэгдсэн боловч, түүнийг дагаж зээлийн хүү буурсангүй, харин ч сүүлчийн 8 жилээр авч үзвэл 0.8 пунктээр нэмэгджээ. Зээлийн нийлүүлэлтийн их хэмжээний өсөлт хүүд нөлөөлөөгүй нь тухайн зах зээл дээр эрэлт нийлүүлэлтээр үнэ зохицуулагдахгүй байгааг, чөлөөт өрсөлдөөн байхгүй болохыг нотолж байгаа юм байна. Мөнгө хүүлэлтийн гол индикатор болох зээлийн “марж” буюу банкуудын хадгаламжийн хүү дээр нэмж буй хувь манайд дунджаар 13% байгаа нь дэлхийн дундаж /4%-6%./-аас хэт өндөр байна. Банкуудын олгож байгаа зээлийн хувьд ч, түүний гол түүхий эд болох хадгаламжийн хувьд ч хэт төвлөрөл бий болсон, 2-3 банкны давамгай байдал ноёрхсон, өрсөлдөөн байхгүй, эрэлт нийлүүлэлтээр зохицуулагддаггүй монополь “үнэ” тогтсон монополиос олгиполь руу шилжих гэсэн категорид хамаарах зээлийн зах манайд бүрэлдэн тогтсоныг дээрх шинж төрхүүд илтгэж байна.

Зээлийн өндөр хүүгийн дарамт нь бизнесс эрхлэгчдийн, иргэдийн төлбөрийн чадварыг сулруулж, зардал өсгөн ашиг бууруулах, улмаар татвар багасгаж, төсвийн орлогыг хомсдуулах нэг бодит хүчин зүйл болоод удаж байна. Баялаг бүтээж хуримтлал бий болгох биш, мөнгөнөөс мөнгө хүүлэх гол хөшүүрэг болж, ард иргэдийн нуруун дээр татвараас дутахааргүй хүнд ачаа ирж, сэтгэл зүйн дарамт бухимдлын нэг эх үүсвэр болох боллоо. Эдийн засаг дахь санхүүгийн нөөц хэт цөөнхийн мэдэлд төвлөрөх үйл явц өрнөж, нийгмийн дундаж давхарга өсөж өндийх, хуримтлалын бааз суурь нэмэгдэх боломжийг хааж боогдуулах сөрөг үр дагавар илрээд удаж байна.

Энэ хуулийн зорилго нь банк, зээлийн үйл ажиллагаа явуулах эрх бүхий хуулийн этгээдээс олгох зээлийн хүүгийн дээд хязгаарыг тогтоох, түүнийг хэрэгжүүлэхтэй холбоотой үйл ажиллагааны эрх зүйн үндсийг тогтооход оршино. Энэ хууль батлагдсанаар нийгэм, эдийн засгийн онцгой чухал ач холбогдол бүхий дараахь эерэг үр дагаварууд гарна гэж үзэж байна:

  • Зээлийн хүүгийн хэт өндөр түвшин мэдрэгдэхүйц буурна. Ялангуяа банк бус зээлдүүлэгчдын зээлийн хэт өндөр хүү буурч, мөнгө хүүлэх үйл ажиллагаа журамлагдаж, хязгаарлагдана.
  • Бизнесийн үйл ажиллагааны зардал буурч ашиг хуримтлал нэмэгдэж, бизнесийн орчин сайжирч,төлбөрийн чадвар дээшилж, татварын бааз суурь тэлж, төсвийн орлого нэмэгдэнэ.
  • Иргэдийн, ялангуяа худалдаа эрхлэгчдийн зээлийн хүүгийн дарамт эрс буурч орлого нэмэгдэж, аж амьдрал сайжирахад чухал нөлөө үзүүлнэ.
  • Мөнгөн хуримтлал, санхүүгийн нөөцийн хуваарилалт зөв чиглэлд орж, мөнгө хүүлэлтэд биш бүтээн байгуулалтад чиглэгдэнэ хэмээн танилцуулав.

Хэлэлцэж буй асуудалтай холбогдуулан УИХ-ын гишүүд асуулт асууж, тодруулга авав. УИХ-ын гишүүн Ж.Ганбаатар энэ хуулийг дэмжиж буйгаа илэрхийлж, зээлийн хүү өндөр байгааг тодотгож, мөн бизнесийн зээлийн хүү 18 хувь байгаа нь юун дээр үндэслэсэн, бууруулах боломж бий эсэх талаар тодруулав.

Ажлын хэсгээс хийсэн тайлбарт, бизнесийн зээлийн хүүгийн 18 хувь бол зах зээлийн нөхцал байдалтай уялдуулан зохицуулагддаг, цаашид бууруулах боломж бий, харин төрөөс дэмжих бодлого хэрэгжүүлэх шаардлага үүсээд байна гэлээ.

Төсөл санаачлагч УИХ-ын гишүүн С.Эрдэнэ “Зээлийн хүүг бууруулах асуудал өнөөдөр бус олон жил яригдаж байгаа бөгөөд олон шалтгаанаар гацсаар 28 жил боллоо. Энэ асуудал гацаж буй шалтгаан нь зах зээлийн зарчмаар явагдсан гэсэн тайлбар хийгддэг. Иймд төрөөс зохицуулалт хийх шаардлага үүсч байна” гэв.

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